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In most clans the eldest son inherited the office of his father. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

The alliance under his leadership survived Zwide’s first assault at the Battle of Gqokli Hill. These are divided as follows this list is not exhaustive:. A cylindrical wall is formed out of vertical posts, which is sealed with mud and cow dung.

Firstly, as the Boers moved north inland from the Cape expanwao encountered the Xhosa, the Basotho, and the Tswana.

The smallest unit of bamtu political organizational structure was the householdor kraalconsisting of a expamsao, woman or women, and their children, as well as other relatives living in the same household. The man was the head of the household and often had many wives, and was the family’s primary representative. In Shaka acceded to the Zulu throne at that stage the Zulu were merely one of expqnsao many clans.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The degree of the democracy depended on the strength of the chieftain. The people were divided into different clans or tribes which had their own functions, laws, and language.

Retrieved from ” https: However, “Bantu” is used without pejorative connotations in other parts of Africa. Traditionally, communities live in two different types of houses. Shaka is well known for the many military, social, expanszo and political reforms he used to dxpansao his highly organized and centralised Zulu state. The term Bantu is derived from the word for “people” common to many of the Bantu languages. No meat of dogsapescrocodiles or snakes could be eaten. Articles needing additional references from June All articles needing additional references Expandao dmy dates from January Use South African English from January All Wikipedia articles written in South African English All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Common among the two powerful divisions of the Nguni and the Sotho—Tswana are patrilineal societies, in which the leaders formed the socio-political units.


The most expqnsao differences are the strongly deviating languages, although both are Southern Bantu languagesand the different settlement types and relationships. Likewise taboo was the meat of some birdslike owlscrows and vulturesas well as the flesh of certain totem animals.

From the late 18th and early 19th centuries, there were two major areas of frictional contact between the white settlers and the Bantu speakers in Southern Africa.

Lwanga-Lunyiigo, Samwiri

This article needs additional citations for verification. Following the establishment of the Dutch Cape ColonyEuropean settlers began arriving in Southern Africa in substantial numbers. Whereas previous battles had been limited to relatively minor encounters, Shaka introduced banru more deadly stabbing spear to replace the throwing xepansao, military encirclement to replace allowed retreat of the enemy, and the total destruction of lands to remove any means of sustenance for the enemy.

This repeated until the last brother died.

Língua portuguesa em África – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

The roof is built from tied-together poles. By many accounts Shaka used ruthless military force against his opponents, often adopting a scorched earth policy to destroy or displace civilian populations. Chiefdom-ship was largely hereditaryalthough chiefs were often replaced when not effective. There were a number of taboos regarding the consumption of sxpansao.

Until very recently, Bantu-speaking communities were often divided into different clansnot around national federations bntu, but independent groups from some hundreds to thousands of individuals.

expanwao Around Trekboers from the Cape encountered Bantu speakers around the Great Fish River and frictions arose between the two groups. Except with the Tsonga and partially the Mpondofishing was of surprisingly little importance. In some clans the office was left to the oldest brother of the deceased chief, and after his death again the next oldest brother. This page was last edited on 14 Julyat When the early Portuguese sailors cf.

At the time KwaZulu-Natal was populated by dozens of small Zulu-speaking clans. In the Nguni settlements villages were widely scattered, whereas the Sotho—Tswana settled in towns. Blacks from South Africa were at times officially called ” Expansak ” by the apartheid regime. Shaka integrated defeated clans into the Zulu, on a basis of full equality, with promotions in the army and civil service being a matter of merit rather than circumstance of birth.


Bantu-speaking peoples of South Africa.

By he had conquered a huge empire covering a vast area from the sea in the east to the Drakensberg mountains in the west, and from the Pongola River in the north to the Bashee river in the south, not far from the modern day town of East London. Their food acquisition was primarily limited to agriculture and hunting ; generally the women were responsible for agriculture and the men drew for the hunt.

Lwanga-Lunyiigo, Samwiri [WorldCat Identities]

After the death of the Mthethwa king Dingiswayo bbantuat the hands of Zwidethe king of the Ndwandwe, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance. Borders were natural features such as rivers or mountains, which were not by any means fixed.

Households which lived in the same expansaoo or on the same hill in a village were also an organizational unit, managed by a sub-chief. Similarly, food expabsao was by cultivation and hunting. He could be criticized both by advisors as well as by his people, and compensation could be demanded. Next was the eldest son of the original chieftain; then the oldest one of the brothers as the leader.

As long as sufficient land was available, they had only very vague bantk of borders. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. The chief was surrounded with a number of trusted friends or advisors, usually relatives like uncles and brothers, rather than influential headmen or personal friends. The floor of both types is compressed earth. The diet consisted of corn introduced from South-East Asiameat mostly wild game, boar, and beefvegetables, milkwater and grain beer.