Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.
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“Ley antimaras” debía ser derogada tras sentencia de CorteIDH pero al contrario será endurecida
Analysis and mapping of these activities and relations would help inform police and judicial strategies that target gangs and individuals carrying out the most harmful activities, above all hondurax, rape and forced displacement. An analysis carried out by the National Civilian Police in andbut not published untildeemed 80 per cent of the weapons honuras in by maras during the truce to be in good condition. Lately, they have ceased using noticeable tattoos to avoid being identified by security forces.
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Hide Footnote In response, the Honduran B has sought to seize control of the booming extortion business, leading anti,aras violent competition with smaller gangs or mara offshoots such as Los Benjis or Los Chirizos. The Institute for Comparative Studies in the Penal Sciences examined more than 5, detentions in Guatemala during April and May and deemed only 1.
The Construction of the Maras – 4. Case studies – Graduate Institute Publications
Guatemala clearly provides an example of rhetorical securitization. Though imprecise, these figures underline the magnitude of the challenge posed by the gangs. Hide Footnote There are at least three active U. Crisis Group interview, San Salvador, March Overview of government discourse and policies towards gangs per president, El Salvador Credits Sources: Although the Berger administration kept its distance from the media between andmedia coverage tends to be one-sided and seems to inflate the gang problem.
While policy-makers provide formal support in the adoption of extraordinary means e. But it is in the issue of citizen security where we confront the biggest challenge. Overview of government discourse and policies towards gangs per president, Guatemala Zoom in Original png, 2,0M. List of illustrations Title Chart 2: However, upon entering the gangs many of them are exposed to violence and submission. Women are central to gang operations across the Northern Triangle.
See also, Buzan et al. In El Salvador, Two to three businesses are estimated to close down each month as a result of extortions. Among the three countries analyzed in this paper, Honduras and especially El Salvador are not characterized as much by rural and indigenous populations Peetz Indeed recently, the governmental discourse relating to the maras has swung back to a use of intense repressive statements. According to a recent poll, Riots and interpersonal violence, many times homicidal, are common.
Maras veered toward either extortion, as in Guatemala and El Salvador, or small-scale drug trafficking, like the MS in Honduras, where it has reportedly been involved in money laundering via the purchase of small businesses. The political elite, as well as governmental and public institutions e. During the first decade of the 21st century, the gangs established control over slum areas in big cities across the NTCA, but also in middle-class neighbourhoods and rural areas in El Salvador.
Crimes are not to be disregarded, and punishment for them is to be expected. The aftermath of the truce has been disheartening. Desktop version Mobile version. Prisons have become essential to the criminal development of the maras. In El Salvador, local transport businesses inducted the emerging neighbourhood gangs of the early s into extortion rackets, paying them to intimidate rival firms hondura carry out targeted killings.
But the MS and the B have assumed slightly different characteristics across the three Northern Triangle countries.
El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras
Even though democratic elections are held in El Salvador, a rather xntimaras portrayal of the maras — by the political elite as well as the media — points to authoritarian characteristics as well. The neighborhood Villa Cristiana is controlled ly the Mara All three countries are experimenting with new forms of regional collaboration in law enforcement. But it will depend on international support, in particular the restraint antjmaras the new U. Ad hoc negotiations and transactions with gangs responsible for extortion are not uncommon in the Northern Triangle, and have generated insights into how the maras may be edged toward formal economic activity.
Inthe number of gang members killed was nearly twice the number captured. Similar to Maduro, Lobo relied on the military and the police Bosworth Overview of government discourse and policies towards gangs per president, Honduras Hide Footnote Leaders had agreed to abstain from killing members of other gangs in exchange for better jail conditions.
4. Case studies
In the wake of the riots in Los Angeles, at least 1, Salvadorans were deported. By illegally arresting suspect gang members and thereby violating their human rights these measures went beyond the scope of standard political procedures. Feel free to give our address: We will be glad to provide it with information about OpenEdition and its subscription offers.
Policies toward them need to recognise their social resilience and find ways to reduce the harm they undeniably cause without branding them enemies of the people. Plan Escoba that specifically targeted youth gangs, the maras are currently not at the forefront of security matters as the focus instead lies on fighting organized crime and the drug trade.
This failed attempt at peace has had the unplanned consequence of establishing the maras as political actors with the capacity to negotiate and enforce agreements.
Hide Footnote The environment and illicit opportunities of the territory the maras took over and the traits of the communities living there were at the heart of this adaptive flexibility. Flaws in the quality of data hamper the possibility of establishing clear proportions of homicidal violence produced by maras in the NTCA as compared to other criminal groups.
Hide Footnote Three big hits against extortion rackets were carried antimaeas in Guatemala inproducing captures in total. For more information, see Arellano. Furthermore, certain female gang members who connect other girls to human trafficking and sexual exploitation networks are reported by social workers to derive comfort from the perpetuation of abuses they themselves suffered.